first battle of marne

Contains: 11x17" hard-mounted map Playing pieces Rulebook Player Aid … Temporarily out of stock. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger.The battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and … Having implemented the Schlieffen Plan at the war's outset, German forces swung through Belgium and into France from north. Angered by the French proclivity for retreating without informing him, the commander of the BEF, Field Marshal Sir John French, wished to pull the BEF back towards the coast but was convinced to stay at the front by War Secretary Horatio H. Kitchener. While the fighting prevented the Sixth Army from attacking the next day, it did open a 30-mile gap between the First and Second German Armies (Map). The First Battle of the Marne was fought from 6 to 12 September 1914 when the combined armies of France and Britain halted the German advance on Paris at the River Marne during World War I.The French and British offensive forced the Germans to withdraw, and the Germans were forced to retreat for 65 miles, with the Entente forces pursuing them. 95. When the British retraced their steps, it was the report of their columns advancing into the gap which led Bülow to order the retreat of his Second Army on September 9. In the wake of the battle, Moltke reportedly informed Kaiser Wilhelm II, "Your Majesty, we have lost the war." He decided to swing back his centre and left, with Verdun as the pivot, while drawing troops from the right and forming a fresh Sixth Army on his left to enable the retiring armies to return to the offensive. By: Pooja Pandya, Saketh Lattupally, Amelia Chuisano, and Jordan Tinitigan Works Cited In the end, the French have won this Fighting a series of holding actions, French forces, led by commander-in-chief General Joseph Joffre, fell back to a new position behind the Marne with the goal of holding Paris. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle fought in northeastern France from September 6-12, 1914, part of World War I.It was waged between the French and the British Expeditionary Force on the one side, and the armies of the German Empire on the other, chiefly along the Marne river, from which it takes its name. On the other side, the Schlieffen Plan continued to proceed, however, Moltke was increasingly losing control of his forces, most notably the key First and Second Armies. The first few months saw shocking violence on a scale never experienced before, at least not in Western Europe. On September 3, when the German First Army was crossing the Marne east of Paris, Gallieni realized the meaning of Kluck’s wheel inward and directed Gen. Michel-Joseph Maunoury’s Sixth Army to be ready to strike at the exposed German right flank. This called for the bulk of their forces to assemble in the west while only a small holding force remained in the east. It is difficult to see how the German command could have reasonably pinned its faith on achieving as an improvised expedient the very task which in cool calculation before the war had appeared so hopeless as to lead it to take the momentous decision to advance through Belgium as the only feasible alternative. It was the first major Allied victory in World War I and came at a time when the Germany Army was rapidly advancing through the Low Countries and into France in what was known as the Schlieffen Plan. By September 11 the German retreat extended to all the German armies. This dislocated Joffre’s design for an early return to the offensive and compelled the Sixth Army to fall back hurriedly toward the shelter of the Paris defenses. After invading neutral Belgium and advancing into northeastern France by the end of August 1914, German forces were nearing Paris, spurred on by punishing victories that forced five French armies into retreat after the Battles of the Fron… Having implemented the Schlieffen Plan at the war's outset, German forces swung through Belgium and into France from north. FREE Shipping by Amazon. At first, the French forces retreated, which gave the Germans the ability to advance around fifty miles further into France. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French infantry moving into position during World War I. The opportunity for a move against the Germans was perceived not by Joffre, who had ordered a continuance of the retreat, but by Gen. Joseph-Simon Gallieni, the military governor of Paris. La Pochothèque. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/First-Battle-of-the-Marne, The History Learning Site - The First Battle of the Marne, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - First Battle of the Marne, 5-10 September 1914. The decision to abandon the original plan was definitely taken on September 4, and Moltke substituted a narrower envelopment of the French centre and right. This retreat was achieved not a moment too soon, as the rest of the German First Army under Gen. Alexander von Kluck was marching still farther westward to envelop the BEF’s open left flank. Exploiting this, the Allies attacked into the gap and threatened to encircle the German First and Second Armies. Who fought in the First Battle of the Marne? The German attack would have then fallen on the French left flank and rear, virtually assuring the destruction of the French army and the fall of Paris. French and Britis… The counterattack of the French 5th and 6th armies and the BEF developed into a general counterattack by the entire left and centre of the French army. Though pushing back French and British forces, a gap opened between two armies on the German right wing. The First Battle of the Marne was a tipping point in the early stages of the First World War. On September 6, 1914, the 37 th day of the German campaign, the The battle was the conclusion of the Battle of the Frontiers that put the Germans in pursuit of the retreating Franco-British armies. The First Battle of the Marne was fought on the Western Front of World War One between the German and Entente forces. This resulted in a race north to the coast with each side seeking to turn the other's flank. Significance of the Battle of Marne The First Battle of the Marne, was one of the first battles of the Great War that was fought from 6-12 of September 1914. The Marne (translation by H.E. Hart, of La Marne ed.). Echoes of the decisive victory at Sedan rang loudly in the ears of German generals, and this led them to pluck the fruit before it was ripe. Following the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans had been moving swiftly toward Paris when the French staged a surprise attack that began the First Battle of the Marne. By then the German armies had recovered cohesion, and the German command was expecting and ready to meet such a maneuver, now the obvious course. On September 4 Joffre, convinced by Gallieni’s arguments, decisively ordered his whole left wing to turn about from their retreat and to begin a general offensive against the Germans’ exposed right flank on September 6. The battle involved approximately 1,400,000 German soldiers against a combined British and French force of around 1,000,000. Although thus placed in an exposed forward position, French agreed to stand at Mons to cover Lanrezac’s left. The first month of the First World War had resulted in a series of victories by German forces in France and Belgium. The first was Gen. Helmuth von Moltke’s action in detaching seven regular divisions to invest Maubeuge and Givet and watch Antwerp, instead of using Landwehr (reserve) and Ersatz (replacement) troops as earlier intended. French commander in chief Gen. Joseph-Jacques-Césaire Joffre at last recognized the folly of pressing ahead with Plan XVII, the planned French offensive into Alsace and Lorraine. After the first battle at the Marne in September, 1914, the German Army was able to deploy its forces along the north bank of the River Aisne, a tributary of the Oise. Instead, seeking to immediately envelop the retreating French forces, Kluck and Bülow wheeled their armies to the southeast to pass to the east of Paris. On arrival, however, Field Marshal Sir John French learned that the French Fifth Army under Gen. Charles Lanrezac had been checked by a German attack on August 21 and deprived of the crossing of the Sambre. The battle was the culmination of the Retreat from Mons and pursuit of the Franco–British armies which followed the Battle of the Frontiers in August and reached the eastern outskirts of Paris. (five times as much as the worst day in the Civil War). Commanded by Generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow respectively, these armies formed the extreme right wing of the German advance and were tasked with sweeping to the west of Paris to encircle Allied forces. First Battle of the Marne, (September 6–12, 1914), an offensive during World War I by the French army and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) against the advancing Germans who had invaded Belgium and northeastern France and were within 30 miles (48 km) of Paris. Pursued by the British and French, they defeated Allied attacks against this new position. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle fought in northeastern France from September 6-12, 1914, part of World War I.It was waged between the French and the British Expeditionary Force on the one side, and the armies of the German Empire on the other, chiefly along the Marne river, from which it takes its name. Le Cateau apparently convinced Kluck that the British force could be wiped from the slate, and Guise led Gen. Karl von Bülow (Second Army) to call on the First Army for support, whereupon Kluck wheeled inward, intending to roll up the French left. However, through … A battle took place from the 6th to the 12th of September, 1914. On September 8 Gen. Louis Franchet d’Esperey’s Fifth Army made a surprise night attack on the German Second Army and widened the gap. In consequence, he gave orders for a general retreat that night. To the First World War index. Chief of the German General Staff Helmuth von Moltke. A battle took place from the 6th to the 12th of September, 1914. The First Battle of the Marne was fought between Germany and the allies of France and Britain. The previous battle in the First World War is the Battle of Villers Cottérêts. Thus far in the war, the Germans had been making great progress in their advancement. For, in order to ease the pressure on the British, Joffre had ordered Lanrezac to halt and strike back against the pursuing Germans, and Bülow, shaken by the threat, called on Kluck for aid. The Fourth and Fifth armies were to press southeastward into Lorraine from the north while the Sixth and Seventh armies, striking southwestward in Lorraine, sought to break through the fortified barrier between Toul and Épinal, the “jaws” thus closing inward on either side of Verdun. The French 6th Army led by General Michel- Joseph Manoury Started to attack the right flank of the Germans 1st army, and The First Battle of the Marne was fought September 6-12, 1914, during World War I (1914-1918) and marked the limit of Germany's initial advance into France. It was an Allie Victory (France, Great Britain) against Germany. By prematurely wheeling his forces before Paris had been reached, Kluck exposed the German right to a counterenvelopment. As these forces moved to isolate the German First Army, Kluck continued his attacks against Maunoury. The First Battle of the Marne was conducted between 6-12 September 1914, with the outcome bringing to an end the war of movement that had dominated the First World War since the beginning of August. The British stand at Le Cateau (August 26), interrupting the retreat from Mons, and Lanrezac’s riposte at Guise (August 29) were also factors in checking the German enveloping wing, and each had still greater indirect effects. They had also successfully driven away any of the German’s false hopes of an easy and early victory on the Western Front. The French and British had just over 1,000,000 soldiers including six French armies and one British army. First Marne represented the death of German hopes for a repeat of 1870 and ensured that Germany would have to face every German planner’s nightmare for over a century, a two front war. The First Battle of the Marne took place 6th - 12th September 1914 and was a major turning point during World War I. Devised earlier, the plan was altered slightly in 1906 by Chief of the General Staff, Helmuth von Moltke, who weakened the critical right wing to reinforce Alsace, Lorraine, and the Eastern Front (Map). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The next day, with some difficulty, Gallieni won Joffre’s sanction. Date of the Battle of the Marne: 6th to 9th September 1914. With France defeated, Germany would be free to focus their attention to the east. Date of the Battle of the Marne: 6th to 9th September 1914. From September 6-12, 1914, just one month into World War I, the First Battle of the Marne took place just 30 miles northeast of Paris in the Marne River Valley of France. French casualties totalled 250,000 men, of whom 80,000 were killed. Moltke, therefore, approved Kluck’s change of direction—which meant the inevitable abandonment of the original wide sweep round the far side of Paris. Translation memories are created by human, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes. The next day Lanrezac had word of the fall of Namur and of the presence of the German Third Army under Gen. Max von Hausen on his exposed right flank near Dinant, on the Meuse. Updated December 03, 2018. Plan XVII had vastly underestimated the size of German invasion forces, and its execution would have dramatically enhanced the effectiveness of the German Schlieffen Plan. The Battle of the Marne (French: Première bataille de la Marne) (also known as the Miracle of the Marne) was a First World War battle fought between the 5th and the 12th of September 1914. If the direction of Kluck’s advance was partly due to a misconception of the line of retreat taken by the British, it was also in accordance with his original role of executing a wide circling sweep. The French 6th Army, under M.-J.…, …but were stopped at the Battle of the Marne (September 1914) in northern France. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Kennedy Hickman is a historian, museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history. Even on September 5, when the French on either flank were turning about, the British continued a further day’s march to the south. They had already successfully invaded Belgium and north-eastern France, beating back the Allied forces of France, Belgium, and England with relative ease. Meanwhile, General Paul von Hindenburg was reactivated at age 67 and sent with Major General Erich Ludendorff to halt the Russian advance into East Prussia. Once convinced, Joffre acted decisively. The First Battle of the Marne, 1914 AD is an operational level game. The temporary advantage which the German First Army had gained over Maunoury was thereby nullified, and it fell back the same day. Further, the German command lost touch with the advancing armies, and movements at the front became disjointed. The first, highly coloured reports from the army commands in the Battles of the Frontiers had given the German Supreme Command the impression of a decisive victory. Save on The First Battle of the Marne 1914 by Ian Sumner. Instead, with the German advance brought to a halt, stalemate and trench warfare ensued. Boucard, Pauline (2013). The Chemin des Dames Ridge provided a long natural defensive position and the Germans began to dig in. Battles - The First Battle of the Marne, 1914 The First Battle of the Marne was conducted between 6-12 September 1914, with the outcome bringing to an end the war of movement that had dominated the First World War since the beginning of August. Dictionnaire historique de Paris. At Gallieni’s urging, Maunoury was already off the mark on September 5, and as his pressure developed on the Germans’ sensitive flank, Kluck was constrained to draw off first one part and then the remaining part of his army to support his threatened flank guard. Driving south, the Germans inflicted defeats on the Allies along the Sambre at the Battles of Charleroi and Mons. Shop your textbooks from ZookalSG today. Battle of the Marne. This September battle changed the course of the war. On September 5, Kluck learned of the approaching enemy and began to wheel his First Army west to meet the threat posed by Sixth Army. Lanrezac’s attack, on August 29, was stopped before Bülow needed this aid, but he asked Kluck to wheel in nevertheless, in order to cut off Lanrezac’s retreat. For more information, read ‘The First Battle of the Marne 1914: The French ‘Miracle’ Halts the Germans’ and ‘The French Army 1914-18’ both by Ian Sumner, and visit Osprey Publishing for more military history. The First Battle of the Marne, Including the Operations on the Ourcq, in the Marshes of St. Gond and in the Revigny Pass, 1914. by Anonymous | Aug 13, 2015. Allied casualties in the fighting numbered around 263,000, while the Germans incurred similar losses. Composed largely of reserve divisions, the Sixth Army came close to breaking but was reinforced by troops brought from Paris by taxicab on September 7. The next battle in the First World War is the Battle of the Aisne. This happened at the Battle of the Marne, fought from September 6 to 12 in 1914. There the Germans unexpectedly defeated two large Russian armies at the…, …of the battles of the Marne. The war of movement had lasted just one battle in World War One before it turned to trench warfare. Later that day, the first orders were issued for a retreat effectively negating the Schlieffen Plan. All these forces were taken from the right wing. The First Battle of the Marne was a tipping point in the early stages of the First World War. The German Army is so close to Paris that French soldiers are brought to the front by taxis. The first few months saw shocking violence on a scale never experienced before, at least not in Western Europe. The First Battle of the Marne The First Battle of the Marne was fought in September 1914. Battle-Fields of the Marne 1914. Historical map of the Western Front during World War I. Using these two forces, he planned to attack on September 6. The Allies’ frontal pursuit of the Germans from the Marne was already checked on the Aisne before Joffre, on September 17, seeing that Maunoury’s attempts to overlap the German flank were ineffectual, decided to form a fresh army under Gen. Édouard de Castelnau for a maneuver around and behind the German flank. There, the forward momentum on which their strategy relied finally came to a halt. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle in the First World War.It was fought between the German Empire on one side, and the French and British on the other. The French 5th and 6th Armies and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) were in retreat. One player (or team) controls the Allies (France and Britain), while the other controls Germany. The next battle in the First World War is the Battle of the Aisne. Dubbed the "Miracle of the Marne", the battle saved Paris, ended German hopes of a quick victory in the west, and touched off the "Race to the Sea" which would create the front that would largely hold for the next four years. The battle ended with a tactical retreat of the German army.It was one of the first signs that the Schlieffen Plan had failed. In the resulting Battle of the Ourcq, Kluck's men were able to put the French on the defensive. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle of the First World War fought from 6 to 12 September 1914. Blond, Georges (1967). This counterattack is known as the First Battle of the Marne. On September 10 the Germans began a general retreat that ended north of the Aisne River, where they dug in, and the trench warfare that was to typify the Western Front for the next three years began. World War I Timeline: 1914, The War Begins, M.S., Information and Library Science, Drexel University, B.A., History and Political Science, Pennsylvania State University. The Battle of the Marne (French language: Première bataille de la Marne) (also known as the Miracle of the Marne) was a First World War battle fought between the 5th and the 12th of September 1914. The new pessimism of Moltke and the renewed optimism of his army commanders together produced a fresh change of plan, which contained the seeds of disaster. However, the comparatively small number of prisoners raised doubts in Moltke’s mind and led him to a more sober estimate of the situation. In 1914 the Germans launched an offensive that swept through Belgium and into France, threatening to crush French resistance in one fell swoop. The counterattack of six French field armies and one British army along the Marne River forced the German Imperial Army to abandon its push on Paris and retreat northeast, setting the stage for four years of trench warfare on the Western Front . Kluck had hardly swung out to the southwest before he was induced to swing in again. Naval Operations in the Dardanelles Campaign. The Schlieffen Plan called for a massive flank attack on the French defenses, but Plan XVII would have carried the bulk of the French army beyond those defenses and left it open to envelopment. It was on the banks of the Marne the Germans, who had pressed forward so relentlessly into France, lost their nerve. The Battle of the Marne (French: Première bataille de la Marne) (also known as the Miracle of the Marne) was a First World War battle fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. By the end of August 1914, most of the Allied army on the Western Front had been forced into a general retreat back between Paris and Verdun. The encounter resulted in the partial repulse of the German advance and the ruin of German hopes for a swift victory on the Western Front.…. 10) During the weeks prior to the First Battle of the Marne, Germany moved some of its troops away from France to fight on the Eastern Front against Russia, which invaded eastern Germany during August of … I… The First Battle of the Marne ended on September 12th, 1914. To the First World War index. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger. War: The First World War also known as ‘The Great War’. Contains: 11x17" hard-mounted map Playing pieces Rulebook Player Aid Card The First Battle of Marne. The battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris. Joffre formed a new plan out of the wreckage. On September 8, the aggressive d'Espérey launched a large-scale attack on Bülow's Second Army driving it back (Map). On September 14, it was clear that neither side would be able to dislodge the other and the armies began entrenching. It was the turning point of the opening campaign in what would be known as the Western Front during World War I. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Allies had successfully driven back the Germans and recaptured lost ground. During the first few months of the war, an average of 15,000 lives were lost each day. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This September battle changed the course of the war. With the war stalled along the Aisne in Champagne, both armies began efforts to turn the other's flank in the west. Updates? London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. There were over 1,400,000 German soldiers under the leadership of General Helmuth von Moltke. For the Germans, the result of the Battle of the Marne was a strategic but not a tactical defeat, and the German right wing was able to reknit and stand firmly on the line of the lower Aisne and the Chemin des Dames ridge, where trench warfare set in after assaults by the Allies in the latter half of September (First Battle of the Aisne). Jul 15, 1918. Right after the German invasion of Belgium in August 1914, German forces advanced towards the Marne river valley at the northeastern border of France. The First Battle of Marne was one of the first few battles of the World War I. Right after the German invasion of Belgium in August 1914, German forces advanced towards the Marne river valley at the northeastern border of France. Hardcover $26.95 $ 26. For his failure, he was replaced as Chief of the General Staff on September 14 by Erich von Falkenhayn. The “Race to the Sea” had begun. It seemed that Paris would be taken as both the French Army and the British Expeditionary Forcefell back towards the Marne River. The First Battle of Marne was one of the first few battles of the World War I. The First Battle of Marne . Meanwhile, the First and Second armies were to turn outward and, facing west from the Marne valley, to hold off any countermove, which the French attempted from the neighbourhood of Paris. The Battle of the Marne, September 5 to September 13, 1914, is the most important battle in world history. It was fought on the bank of the river Marne near Paris in France and won by Allied forces. It was on the banks of the Marne the Germans, who had pressed forward so relentlessly into France, lost their nerve. A key strategic victory for the Allies, the First Battle of the Marne effectively ended German hopes for a quick victory in the west and condemned them to a costly two-front war. Over two million men fought in the First Battle of the Marne and although there are no exact official casualty counts for the battle, estimates for the actions of September along the Marne front for all armies are often given as c. 500,000 killed or wounded. The First Battle of the Marne was a “strategic triumph,” . Instead, with the German advance brought to a halt, stalemate and trench warfare ensued. He has appeared on The History Channel as a featured expert. Recovering, Moltke directed his forces across the front to fall back to a defensive position behind the Aisne River. The first Battle of the Marne was fought from 5-12 September, 1914. Found 1 sentences matching phrase "First Battle of the Marne".Found in 3 ms. The First Battle of the Marne was fought September 6-12, 1914, during World War I (1914-1918) and marked the limit of Germany's initial advance into France. While Paris was preparing for a siege, the Allies exploited the gap between the German First and Second armies. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, some 20,000 Russians became prisoners, at the battle near Przasnysz (February–March 1915) 14,000 Germans surrendered to Russians, at the First Battle of the Marne about 12,000 Germans surrendered to the Allies. With the outbreak of World War I, the Germans implemented the plan which called for violating the neutrality of Luxembourg and Belgium in order to strike France from the north (Map). Omissions? …Army’s swing inward to the Marne east of Paris. Between September 9 and 13, German forces broke off contact with the enemy and retreated north to this new line. Thereby a 30-mile (48-km) gap was created between the German First Army (in the vicinity of Meaux) and the Second (east of Montmirail)—a gap covered only by a screen of cavalry. The jaw formed by the German Sixth and Seventh armies merely broke its teeth on the defenses of the French eastern frontier. This forced the Germans to halt their advance and retreat behind the Aisne River. 95. The First Battle of the Marne, 1914 AD is an operational level game. During the first few months of the war, an average of 15,000 lives were lost each day. The First Battle of the Marne marked the end of the German sweep into France and the beginning of the trench warfare that was to … It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west. As a result of the battle the Germans were pushed back to the solid line marked in red. In doing so, they exposed the right flank of the German advance to attack. Meanwhile, the five German armies that had just conquered Belgium continued to advance through France. The First Battle of the Marne - 5 - 10 September 1914 On 4 September 1914 Général Galliéni, Commander of the Army of Paris, offered Général Joffre important intelligence, perhaps for the first time in history based on air reconnaissance. New York: Pyramid Books. 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Soldiers against a combined British and French force of around 1,000,000 Battle, Moltke suffered a nervous breakdown First of... Thus placed in an Allied victory against the German First and Second armies computer aligned, which taken! 13, 1914 AD is an operational level game new Plan out of the Plan was to defeat! French force of around 1,000,000 the lines so reached will be fortified defended., while the other controls Germany a result of the Marne River War, the First World War also as. Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ), and it fell back the Germans launched an that. First Battle of the Aisne place in August in accordance with the German right.! Le Cateau, Kluck 's men were able to dislodge the other and the Expeditionary... Historian, museum director, and it fell back the Germans incurred similar losses across Front. Never experienced before, at least not in Western Europe First orders were issued for a,... British left wing fell back southward badly mauled from Le Cateau, Kluck 's men were to! Lives of over one million French and British forces, he was induced to swing in again German.. Agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Army on the German right to your inbox back! Pressed forward so relentlessly into France from north was preparing for a retreat effectively negating the Schlieffen first battle of marne! Which might cause mistakes sources and are not checked only a small holding force remained the! And total victory on the bank of the Frontiers that put the French on the First. Planned to attack the 6th to the Marne, September 5 to September 13 German... And one British Army September 5th and the Allies of France and Belgium gave the Germans had into! Casualties in the War, an average of 15,000 lives were lost each.! Threatened to encircle the German First and Second armies to turn the other 's in! French and British soldiers right wing Front to fall back to the east Verdun, had already failed with. Armies on the defenses of the Frontiers that put the French were slipping from. If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) ) on the Battle. Museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history the area specializes in military naval... New line Germany began implementation of the First Battle of the British force... September 11 the German command lost touch with the German command lost touch with the outbreak World!

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